Integral Transformation of Value Chains

Integral Transformation of Value Chains: One Sky’s Integral Leadership Program in the Brazil Nut Value Chain in Peru and Bolivia

January-February 2015 / Leading World / Integral Leadership Review

Gail Hochachka

Abstract: One Sky carried out an Integral Leadership Program with the Brazil nut value chain in Bolivia and Peru, in partnership with Costco the fourth largest retailer in the US, as well as Candor, one of his main buyers, along with the Canadian nonprofit organization Integral Without Borders Institute. As an overall goal, the program sought to foster a personal, collective and systemic transformation of the Brazil nut value chain through an emergent design, based on integral principles. It included five retreats over 18 months, in-depth self-development as a leader, extensive learning about the social and environmental dimensions of the value chain, the importance of quality of the product, and effectiveness of the value chain itself. The program intended to generate the depth of relationships and trust to create a more unified vision amongst all actors and a more resilient value chain, able to exist fluidly amongst the on-going threats that global issues pose for sustainable supply. This article discusses the design and the methodology, and then reports on the success towards this end, considering the indicators for change in all of these dimensions of transformation.

Publication or release date: 
2014

BACKGROUND

Nepal is one of the poorest and least developed countries in the world, with almost one-quarter of its population living below the poverty line. Several development projects are underway with a Eurocentric worldview, which radically imbalances the cultural stability and social system of Nepal and contributes to environmental degradation.

Forces of globalization, modernity and westernization has brought new opportunities and new challenges. They have radically shifted the way of life often to the detriment of tradition, culture and social stability. With just over 28 million population and rich natural resources, bringing Nepal to sustainable and thriving nation is not a faraway goal.

The political instability has halted development initiatives for more than a decade and as the youngest republic in the world, Nepal stands waiting for new leaders with global vision to create a new nation.

Integral Nepal Project is working with a vision of creating “1000 change leaders for a thriving Nepal” by the year 2025. We envision to collaborate with leaders from every sector - non-profit, business, politics, education, law, healthcare who are working in Nepali communities.

OBJECTIVES

  1. To impact _comm__unities by partnering and developing integral leadership capacities
  2. To bridge the gap between elite integral studies and mainstream leadership practices by reframing integral as actionable curriculum
  3. To raise awareness of the global context that we live in today and adapt the Earth Charter principles
  4. To honor arts, culture and lifestyle of underserved communities and provide leadership capacity to thrive and access global market'

 

KEY DELIVERABLES:

1. Impact Leadership Training

  • 9 months of rigorous leadership training that brings out not only strategic thinking but also personal mastery and presence.
  • This multi-disciplinary training will be informed by latest researches in psychology, leadership studies, organizational development, and international development

2. Project Planning and Development

  • 2 years of strategic planning, financial analysis, need assessment, capacity building and monitoring of participant’s projects.
  • This will ensure project’s long-term sustainability and development.
  • Participants will be trained in maintaining and developing project initiatives based on latest researches and case studies on sustainable development.
  • This will also include navigating global concerns like climate change, cultural conflicts, women rights, and poverty.
  • Participants will be introduced to network of other NGOs, foundations and social entrepreneurship ventures in US, Canada and South America. This will ensure ongoing learning and support.
  • Establish annual conference for knowledge sharing and community building.

3. Sustainable Development & Thrivability Training

  • Participants will be trained in maintaining and developing project initiatives based on latest researches and case studies on sustainable development.
  • This will also include navigating global concerns like climate change, cultural conflicts, women rights, and poverty

4. Global Citizenship & Local Leadership

  • Participants will be introduced to network of other NGOs, foundations and social entrepreneurship ventures in US, Canada and South America. This will ensure ongoing learning and support.

5. Nepal Sustainable Development Conference

  • Establish annual conference for knowledge sharing and community building.

OUR PARTNERSHIP WITH SAGARMATHA ASAHAYA SEWA SANGH

Sagarmatha Asahaya Sewa Sangh (SASS) was established in 2002 to assist destitute women and children in living a respectful life in their own community. They empower women and children who are rejected by their family, because of socio-economic reasons. Integral Nepal Project has formed a partnership with SASS since 2012 and have co-designed this project based on the expressed interest from SASS to learn more about our approach and enhance it’s praxis in community development.

 

Research Objectives & Outcomes:

1.     Deliver key components of an Integral Capacity Development program with our partner organization in Kathmandu, Nepal;

2.     Carry out workshops with our partner organization in Kathmandu to collaboratively design an assessment and evaluation plan;

3.     Synthesize the results of the project to share with project partners and to disseminate widely with other development organizations.

Project Activities:

1.     Engage stakeholders who are directly affected in the capacity development initiative;

2.     Assess preexisting capacities and determine what areas require additional training, what areas should be prioritized and in what ways capacity building can be incorporated into local and institutional strategies; Formulate a sustainable strategy that addresses (a) institutional structure, (b) leadership development, (c) knowledge sharing and embodied training, and (d) accountability and feedback loop;

3.     Implement an intervention strategy by conducting workshops;

4.     Evaluate institutional structures, leadership, knowledge, and accountability practices.

More information! 

Announcing Pragmagia - Programa de Facilitación Integral de Procesos
Integral Without Borders is honoured to announce it's partnership with Raul Aramayo in Colombia on his Programa de Facilitación Integral de Procesos, Pragmagia. 

Pragmagia 
is a word that combines "pragmatic" and "magic", which are the two components that are integrated in this International Certificate Program for facilitators using an integral approach. Raul has already carried out this program in Guatemala, Bolivia and Colombia, and will now continue to do so in partnership with IWB.

This is a seminal moment for IWB, as it marks the first time we will co-produce a learning program, and also entirely in Spanish for the Spanish-speaking world. Much of his promotional material will only be offered in Spanish, and our website will now integrate both languages (not as two distinct sites but as one integrated whole).

The program, which has run in Bolivia, Colombia, Guatemala, Ecuador and, soon, Mexico, includes five disciplines: An Integra Vision, Perspectives on Evolution and Change, Generative Processes, Trust and Cooperation, and Multidimensional Communication. These five disciplines develop and deepen throughout five innovation labs that make up the program.

Below we give you a sneak peak of the curriculum he is offering this December in La Paz, Bolivia, and throughout next year in other Latin American cities. Watch our website for translated text on this curriculum, as well as a full presentation of the program.



Three programs begin in 2014 and 2015:

29-30 of Noviembre in La Paz, Bolivia
17-18 of January in Bogota, Colombia
24-25 of January in Quito, Ecuador

For more information, contact us.

 

Integral Development Certification

Integral Without Borders has run gatherings every year, bringing together a community of practitioners to reflect on approaches to international development.

To date in Perpignan, France; Istanbul, Turkey, twice; Vancouver; South Africa; and Peru. These have been extraordinary experiences for all involved.

We now want to structure a longer ‘training’ program that runs annually and will lay emergent ground for transformation and thus more effective integral praxis.

Our initial proposal

  • An in-person retreat followed by four 5-week online modules, finishing in field course.
  • An online only option would be offered for those who cannot travel to make this as accessible as possible.

Our intention is to build this into an academic Continuing Education program as Professional Advancement and / or as a Certificate if possible – and as such we are currently putting together a facilitator team that will include some extraordinary people.

But

You have a role in this design!

We need your feedback and active involvement!

  • What do you actually want and need?
  • What is actually possible across a year?

So, please comment on any of the following:

The next Conference Call will be devoted to this topic in mid August (date and details to come soon) and we would love to hear your perspectives - please join us on this exciting adventure

 

 

Integral Without Borders Sangha Call

Integral Nepal - Integrating Tradition, Globalization and Sustainability.


The next Integral Without Borders Community Call will be on May 31st, 2014 on Integral Nepal - Integrating Tradition, Globalization, and Sustainability.

As you may know, our intention with these IWB sangha calls is to co-create the kind of 'integral community' we want, one that is deep and wise in its content, supportive in its interpersonal connections, and world-centric (even kosmo-centric!) in it's moral embrace. Each call will focus on an aspect of integral practice in development with certain practitioners leading on these topics and with participants contributing examples from their integral projects.

Saturday, May 31st, 2014, 9-10:30am Pacific Time. (Find your time zone here).

Register: If you intend to attend, please be sure to drop us an email, so that we know you're intending to be on the call and also so that we can send you the audio clip afterwards.

How: The conference call line is a North American number, but it can be accessed by calling the number via skype.
Conference Dial-in Number: (605) 475-4810
Participant Access Code: 988715#

Price: For now, while we fine-tune these sangha calls, they will be by donation.

 

Thank you! We appreciate your support.

Topic: The call will be on Integral Nepal - Integrating Tradition, Globalization, and Sustainability, and will be lead by Sushant Shrestha. Sushant is a native of Kathmandu, Nepal and an integral researcher with a background in strategy consulting with degrees in Management and Finance. He has trained with Susanne Cook-Greuter, Ed. D. on Leadership Maturity Framework and its organizational application, and with Monica Sharma, MD and Vernice Solimar, Ph.D. in whole systems transformation and leadership development. He has a M.A. in Integral Psychology from JFK University, and is an active member of Integral Without Borders.

Sushant has been visioning an integral development for Nepal for a long time. His on-going inquiry for Nepal is around how to honour and integrate the cultural uniqueness and traditions of the country, with the emergence of modernity. Rather that globalization running amok and obliterating Nepal's rich culture and history, how could the benefits of modernity be integrated and it's drawbacks reigned in?

This question is actually one that rises in practically all developing nations. Globalization does bring education, improved hygiene and sanitation, medicine, transportation systems, income generation, and more. However globalization also ends up manifesting in ways that are out of sync with the culture and consciousness of a people, erodes the integrity of the local and bioregional environment, and literally becomes more a long-term problem than a solution. How to navigate this path to and through modernity -- including it's positive aspects but limiting it's negative ones -- is truly THE question in many nations around the world.

And it is usually civil society who really ponders this question and advocates for a more adequate response. Which means that NGOs -- as the main heralds of civil society -- play an enormously important role in how a country transitions through this tricky terrain. Many primarily green (postmodern) NGOs simply vilify modernity, seeing only the negative impacts of globalization. And yet they often do so having actually benefited from it (through education, greater income levels, gender equality, improved health, etc.). And so not only is their stance a performative contradiction, but it is also not ultimately useful for the country's development. We need pathways to and through globalization, towards greater sustainability, not a complete denial of it as a stage of development.

Sushant has been considering this for so long, and has an integral approach sketched out for how to address this, primarily through building the capacity of Nepali NGOs. He and Gail Hochachka submitted a proposal to MetaIntegral Foundation a few months ago for a small grant of $10,000 for implementing integral research and capacity building work in Nepal, towards a integral sustainable development of the country. They heard yesterday that it was approved (read more in the document below).

Nepal is among the poorest and least developed countries in the world, with almost one-quarter of its population living below the poverty line. Several development projects are underway with a Eurocentric worldview, which radically imbalances the cultural stability and social system of Nepal and contributes to environmental degradation. It is proposed that an integral approach would contribute to a more sustainable development, due to its unique ability to integrate insights and methods from the whole spectrum of consciousness, including traditional, modern, and pluralistic worldviews.
 
The objective of the Integral Nepal Project (iNepal) is to develop a sustainable organizational and leadership approach using integral action research, contributing to the transformation of NGOs in Nepal. The Integral Nepal team will work with their partner NGO, Sagarmatha Asahaya Sewa Sangh (SASS), an organization that empowers women and children as young as one year old who are rejected by their family because of socio-economic reasons and hence are deprived of basic needs for survival. They intend to 1) assess the Action Logics of the team and the strengths and weakness in each quadrant-dimension of the organization, then 2) engage the most significant of these flow-points or gaps in integral capacity building workshops, and finally 3) design an evaluation framework to assess changes in all quadrants across time. In their brief contact with SASS over the past two years, they have seen some improvement in leadership skills and cultural awareness using Cook-Greuter’s developmental model and trainings based on AQAL model, and are confident in a more in-depth engagement will contribute to the overall effectiveness of this NGO, as a role model for other Nepali NGOs in the future.

Please join us on May 31st to explore the nuances of this universal question, in the context of this particular project in Nepal!
 

Up-Coming IWB Events

Integral Yoga and Social Change
IWB Retreat with Sally Kempton
Vancouver area
Sept 26-27, 2014
Save-the-date; details to come soon.



 

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The next Integral Without Borders Community Call will be on April 12th, 2014 on the ThriveAbility - A Dynamic, Integral Way to Create a Thriving World in the 21st Century

As you may know, our intention with these IWB sangha calls is to co-create the kind of 'integral community' we want, one that is deep and wise in its content, supportive in its interpersonal connections, and world-centric (even kosmo-centric!) in it's moral embrace. Each call will focus on an aspect of integral practice in development with certain practitioners leading on these topics and with participants contributing examples from their integral projects.

Saturday, April 12th, 2014, 9-10:30am Pacific Time.

(Find your time zone here).

Register: If you intend to attend, please be sure to drop us an email, so that we know you're intending to be on the call and also so that we can send you the audio clip afterwards.

How: The conference call line is a North American number, but it can be accessed by calling the number via skype.
Conference Dial-in Number: (605) 475-4810
Participant Access Code: 988715#

Price: For now, while we fine-tune these sangha calls, they will be by donation. Go here for donations and to read more about the call. Thank you! We appreciate your support.

Topic: The call will be on the ThriveAbility - A Dynamic, Integral way to Create a Thriving World in the 21st Century. Dr Robin Wood is a renowned strategist, futurist, communicator and agent of transformation. He has spent 3 decades working at board level with the world’s leading organizations in 35 countries on 4 continents. He is deeply skilled in designing and catalyzing major shifts in large scale systems, and in inspiring & empowering the teams that deliver them. His mission is to catalyze and support leaders, organizations and innovations that co-create a thriving global future. He has been a member of IWB since our very first event in France in 2006. Read below for more context about this topic.
 

ThriveAbility
A Dynamic, Integral Way to Create a Thriving World in the 21st Century

By Robin Wood

Our planet and our species have had an increasingly rough ride in the first dozen years of the 21st century. We have belatedly woken up to the fact that we are living on borrowed time and resources, and that the reckoning for our spending spree in the second half of the 20th century is now becoming due. While sustainability advocates have been campaigning for half a century to get us to reduce our impact on our planet, they have failed to motivate the mainstream to shift their thinking and habits toward more sustainable, healthy lifestyles and policies.

There are several reasons for this, though the main one has been that environmentalism and sustainability have positioned themselves as killjoys and fanatics who care more about “nature” than they care about people. While their anger at the damage and destruction we are wreaking on our precious biosphere is understandable, it is also counterproductive. We need to move from impact reduction to thrival maximisation.

ThriveAbility is a response to the failure of sustainability to turn our ship around before we hit the iceberg. Its focus is on what motivates people to change, by providing them with a clear cut logic and set of incentives for doing so. Given that governments and NGO’s are often last in line when it comes to their ability to change, Witness the Rio+20 gridlock. 

The focus of ThriveAbility is on innovators, entrepreneurs, businesses and enablers in governments and NGO’s who are able to work well in partnership with the business community to make things happen.

What makes ThriveAbility different? At its core, ThriveAbility brings a whole systems, integral approach to large scale change based on a synthesis of top down and bottom up ways of enabling shifts to emerge when and where they are required. Creating sustainable value through sustainable innovation requires us to:

1. Recognise and align the very different value systems and priorities motivating people and organizations to move toward ThriveAbility, to  create coherent, effective initiatives.

2. Reframe the relationship between nature, technology and human psychology so that we see ourselves in new ways and gain insights into the unique role we each play as leaders in the shift from surviving in a merely sustainable world to thriving in a flowering, global second Renaissance.

3. Redefine three fundamental relationships between sustainability to wellbeing, innovation to personal development, and happiness to a thriving society, within in the context of the “Thrival Equation.”

4. Prioritise and invest our time, energy money and resources into initiatives, projects, programs and businesses that maximise the Thrival Equation.



[Extract from Robin Wood’s integralMENTORS paper 40 ]

 

 

Integral Without Borders Sangha Call
Dynamics of Emergence - Local Economic Development


Our Feb Integral Without Borders Community Call will be on Feb 8th, 2014 on the Dynamics of Emergence -- Local Economic Development.

As you may know, our intention with these IWB sangha calls is to co-create the kind of 'integral community' we want, one that is deep and wise in its content, supportive in its interpersonal connections, and world-centric (even kosmo-centric!) in it's moral embrace. Each call will focus on an aspect of integral practice in development with certain practitioners leading on these topics and with participants contributing examples from their integral projects.

Saturday, Feb 8th, 2014, 9-10:30am Pacific Time. (Find your time zone here).

Register: If you intend to attend, please be sure to drop us an email, so that we know you're intending to be on the call and also so that we can send you the audio clip afterwards.

How: The conference call line is a North American number, but it can be accessed by calling the number via skype.
Conference Dial-in Number: (605) 475-4810
Participant Access Code: 988715#

Price: For now, while we fine-tune these sangha calls, they will be by donation. Go here for donations and to read more about the call.

Topic: The call will be on the Dynamics of Emergence, lead by Jock Noble of World Vision Armenia. Jock Noble is the Economic Development Hub Lead with World Vision with over a two decade working in community economic development. He has been an active member of IWB since 2008 and is always in a process of inquiry and innovation with how to more effectively alleviate poverty and build community resilience in the least developed parts of this world. Read below for more context about this topic.



Dynamics of Emergence - Local Economic Development
 
By Jock Noble, Economic Development Hub Lead with World Vision International, based in Armenia

The integrally informed emergent spiral uses local economic development as its subject but conceptually could be applied to any development sector. It depicts the relationship between apprehension and action of lived experience and demonstrates multiple ‘exit’ and 're-entry’ points each of which is not an end but a new beginning of another spiral. In this context the movement depicted is ‘upward’ as it can be argued that all movement is intrinsically ‘upward’ if given enough time. Below are some excerpts from the full article attached below for free download.


The purpose of this short paper is to suggest a different paradigm for an increased alignment between Donors, Agents of Change (AOC) who are often NGOs and Beneficiaries, which ultimately is likely to be more authentic, more effective and more durable.

International development generally involves a process where a donor desires to assist human beneficiaries by giving some form of value, often in the form of infrastructure , technology, food, equipment or education and training, so that they can have a better quality of life. Western based AOC’s (typically Non-Government Organizations known as NGOs, INGO’s or Aid Agencies) receive donations to enable an impact to be made for a particular cause and this transaction typically includes what may be called the “donor promise”. This promise, mostly implied, is that the donors money will be used in the way the donor thinks it will be used, to deliver outcomes that the donor perceives are better value for money, as they perceive value, than the donors other alternatives. To deliver on this promise the NGO typically engages of a number of intermediaries (see Fig 1 below).

In making a “promise” to the donor, the AOC will describe some proposed outcomes and how they will be achieved and state or imply that the donor will also have less risk in achieving these outcomes if they use the particular “delivery mechanism” of the AOC (mostly NGOs).  And this is the beginning of a process that is often flawed and paradoxically works against the very things that the Donor and the AOC set out to achieve, and as Oscar Wilde famously said “All men kill the thing they love”.
 
In seeking to conceive and communicate impact through their delivery channels, the AOC typically takes a linear world view that starts as a concept and ends up in action that is planned and delivered with the intention to achieve outcomes.

This linear world view sees the development process as a linear progression, anything on or above the line meets the donor promise, and anything below the line would be seen as a failure to deliver on the intended outcomes.

Here a paradox is created because of the simple truth, that to grow as humans and as communities we learn from and become stronger and more resilient through our challenges and mistakes; it is these that cause us to reflect and evolve whether that is through an increasingly sophisticated and nuanced world views, application of wisdom or harnessing a greater range of material options. For individuals and groups of people who are poor, to broaden their perspectives in ways that increase their options, generally requires some shift in worldviews and for this shift to take place it is likely to require some kind of dis-ease, failure or real risk of failure. But risk of failure is unattractive to donors and both donors and AOCs tend to indentify outcomes below the donor promise line as failure.  Thus in a effort to attract donors, AOCs try  as much as possible, to take risk out of the programming equation which in turn undermines  a communities ability to make choices which could potentially cause a “program” to fail, at least within the scheduled timeframe.

This linear worldview can be revised to show the development quandary when a deviation occurs that may be perceived as a potential program failure or alternately as an injunction that is necessary for resilience building. The problems for the AOC is whether, when and how much to intervene, if useful intervention is possible and what to communicate to donors.

In fact this risk aversion is also likely to curtail the AOC’s own aspirations as they tend only to “program” interventions that they think they can guarantee, if necessary though their own efforts, rather than risking embarking on a journey with a community, the destination of which is still to emerge. And this type of intervention can actually disempower a community, as the AOC’s objectives have usurped the beneficiaries true objectives, like a cuckoo’s egg in the poor communities nest.

This aversion to failure is akin to never letting a child fall and so that child never learns to walk on their own, or a human body that is never allowed to encounter disease and so cannot build the strength and resistance that will sustain it more safely into the future.
 
Shifting perspectives from Linear to Integral Emergent

Conceptualisation of development in communities that are poor can generally be best thought of as “Wicked” problems (Rittel, 1973). A Wicked problem is one in which each situation is essentially unique, evading definitive scoping, where there are no defined ends, solutions are partial and better or worse rather than being right or wrong; where every intervention counts, altering the entire situation and all within the context of being a part of another problem.

Shifting interventions from ‘linear solution thinking’ in overcoming development challenges to wicked problem thinking requires a new way of conceptualising what is to be done, when and by whom.

The Integral perspective as described by Ken Wilber  provides a framework for conceptualising development as an iterative process and has advantages both in the way of perceiving what is in fact closer to an actual development process, as well as broadening the scope the options and possibilities apprehended. Adapting Wilber's approach in the context of development, the “Spiral of Emergence” is depicted below.

The Benefits of Integrally informed Development – Reframing the mess and reenergising the process.

Using the Integral AQAL approach potentially provides increased depth, understanding and a more nuanced picture of what gaps exist between current levels and future preferred levels in the elements necessary for future positive change to occur. This allows for a number of possibilities that can begin to address the current development “mess” described earlier.
 
(a)  By identifying the observable positive changes that are desired and then tetra-meshing the left hand quadrants with those in the right will provide a framework for more effective development as it will:
Allow for the articulation of desired end levels that are needed in the “I” and “We” quadrants.
It will allow for the interiority of sustainable development to be conceived and articulated as a necessary and valuable development outcome within the context of more traditional “visible” outcomes.
Enable the exploration and formulation of strategies and actions that are likely to meet the gaps between a current situation and desired future levels in all quadrants.
Allow for the multidimensional and incremental measurement of outcomes and in shorter timeframes that can be affirmed by all stakeholders and communicated to donors as opposed to longer lag time, two dimensional success/failure propositions.
 
(b)  The AQAL ‘map’ provides the potential for making decisions on the nature of interventions in the individual and community levels that are most likely to lead to the greatest changes in the exterior dimensions of the highest possible number of elements that are restraining sustainable livelihood development.
 
(c)  Through the collection of data from a number of programs that have Integrally informed designs and monitoring and evaluation frameworks there is a high likelihood of being able to demonstrate to donors, that allowing for the real possibility of failure and the more intentional consideration of changes in the interior dimensions, consistently demonstrate greater material and sustainable development outcomes in the longer term. And that working intentionally with all AQAL dimensions does in fact provide greater return on investment than more shallowly conceived programs which focus on faster definitive exterior achievements without paying the necessary attention to the interiority of a situation.
 
(d)  In the context of development, the four AQAL dimensions provide the potential to change program designs from the fear that individual program or program components may fail, to focusing on tetra-meshed end states that allow for a myriad of flexible shared learning opportunities. This focus can more fully utilise the initiative, creativity and energy of staff and community members on the ground, to generate continuous iterations of relevant and timely interventions and apply them towards end states. This approach also allows for an increase in flexibility and for the ongoing adjustment of approaches as successes are achieved and complexity increases. In this framework measurement of progress and positive change is also possible when none of those involved could have predicted what change would happen or how or when and in what form the change takes place.
 
(e) The use of AQAL as a “map” also allows for consideration as to the roles of field staff, as their worldviews and available resources can be overlaid on the present and future map of the community and the changes that it will be necessary for them to bring to the process if they are to play a constructive role.
 
Jock Noble; November 2011 (Jan 2013)
 

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The Basic Moral Intuition in the Context of Social Change

A retreat with Genpo Roshi

Retreat, May 9-11th, 2014

This retreat will focus on exploring how we navigate moral quandries in an increasingly complex world, using Ken Wilber's Basic Moral Intuition as a guide and with Genpo Roshi present to facilitate a self-inquiry process using Big Mind.


Registration Fee

By way of introducing this topic and setting the tone for the retreat, Michael Simpson, Executive Director of One Sky and Co-Director of IWB, has written this following article. Retreat participants will be sent a recording of a recent call with Ken Wilber on this topic, and will also participate in a teleconference call prior to the retreat itself.

“The intuition is given; the unpacking is our moral dilemma, always.” Ken Wilber

Are you inspired to change the world and to reach your own potential? To leave this planet a better place for future generations? Ever wondered where to focus your efforts? There is no shortage of good causes and worthy deeds. How do we determine our priorities?  Is guiding the very first steps of a faltering toddler as worthy as solving a global crisis or tackling climate change? Maybe addressing your own needs is as important as those of others? Should we focus our efforts on individuals or the greater whole? You have limited time and resources. You cannot commit to everything so how do you choose?

 

It is 2014. The concept that we will save all species from extinction, alleviate poverty or achieve gender equality by next year through reaching the 2015 Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), or even succeed in achieving the most minimal of climate change targets has become yesterday’s dream. So, how does this situate us as global social change agents today? The definitions of sustainable development have always focused on “meeting our needs without compromising those of future generations,” yet the moment where that might have been achievable passed many years ago.

 

As an example, let’s review some recent species extinctions. As of 2013, the Formosan Clouded Leopard is now officially extinct and the last Black Rhino died in 2012.  The last of the Japanese River Otters died in 2011 and the last remaining Pinta Island Tortoise, affectionately called Lonesome George, expired on June 12, 2012. These are just a few examples of the estimated thousands of species that scientists estimate we are losing every year. Some put the figure as high as 50,000. Historically this has been a huge loss of biodiversity on our planet and we face an increasingly serious future.  Some argue our species is perilously close to instigating systemic collapse. Whether that’s true or not, we are definitely steadily losing ground when it comes to maintaining species and ecosystems for future generations.

 

While our species is struggling on this front, we have managed to achieve remarkable, unprecedented gains in others. We are interconnected like never before. We can share information at an exponential rate and technological achievements like the Internet have literally changed our world. And, recalling the Arab Spring, using these new forms of communications and other social networking possibilities enable people to participate in changing the world in ways they never had before. Our collective knowledge is doubling every five years, building up an immense resource of information and wisdom that is available to anyone anywhere, by a few clicks on a track pad.  Our world seems to be able to handle increasing levels of complexity and the human mind has access to achieving higher and higher levels of potential like no other time in history. We have overarching frameworks such as the International Human Rights Charter to aspire to. Most nations do in fact agree with the MDGs; whether or not those have been achieved, it is an achievement in and of itself that most nations agree with such a worldcentric set of goals. Some collective systems, such as fiber optics and computer networks, can literally move ideas regarding, for example, spiritual and moral development around the planet at the speed of light.  We are living in remarkably complex times!

 

The Basic Moral Intuition (BMI), a concept outlined by Ken Wilber in his groundbreaking work on integral theory, helps us orient ourselves in such a complex world.  Wilber (and before him Koestler’s) notion of holarchy explains the concept of interconnected whole-parts, where each part is autonomously and yet simultaneously part of a larger whole. These holarchies are everywhere. Atom, molecule, cell, and organ. Seed, seedling, sapling, and oak tree. In a pyramidal way, the earlier holons, such as atoms and seeds, are always in greater number, or in greater span. Whereas the later holons, such as organs and oak trees, are usually in smaller number, and yet they have more depth, meaning that there are more levels of complexity present in their make-up. For an oak tree to exist, it has to have at least these three levels of the holarchy present: seed, seedling and sapling, thus it has greater depth than just a seed for example. The atom on the other hand has more foundation because of its span. Millions of atoms are needed to create a seed and if you take away this earlier more foundational level of the holarchy the seed does not exist and neither does the oak tree.

 

The BMI suggests that we intuit the need to protect and promote the greatest depth for the greatest span. We intuit it’s preferable to eat a carrot than to eat a primate. Or, another example as Wilber describes: “What’s worth more, one ape or a thousand frogs? Perhaps it is an ape…. On intrinsic value alone, we would choose the ape. But, if we discover that the frogs are part of a fragile ecosystem and their death would disrupt the entire system [since they have more fundamental value than the ape], then we would choose to save the frogs, since that would preserve the greatest depth for the greatest span, including probably the lives of other apes.” We are constantly and intuitively working out such moral decisions as we act in the world.

 

The BMI explores this relationship between depth of complexity and span of numbers—or simply, depth and span—and brings a whole new way of understanding the moral decisions that must be tackled regarding our planet’s future.

 

Wilber’s point is that while we need the earlier holons for their fundamental value, we cannot only protect those earlier holons at the expense of the later, more complex holons. So, the physiosphere is the foundation upon which the biosphere (the sphere of life) and the noosphere (the sphere of mind) function, we cannot only orient toward protecting the physiosphere and not also attend to the greater depth present in the biosphere and the noosphere.

 

Simply put, social change can’t only be about the numbers of trees standing. It has to also be about the poet or songwriter or an obscure-yet-transformational-philosophy-book-on-a-dusty-shelf-somewhere, matter. These matter, because they hold greater depth and, thus, may have potential to protect greater span. They have to be factored into our intuitive moves in the world today.

 

The key to understanding Wilber’s concept of the BMI is that without a physiosphere and without a biosphere, humans have no ability to exist or move toward complexity. Without chemicals you have no life, and without life you have no poetry. Poetry, he argues, has more complexity than a rock or a stone, and should have an important place in our moral decision-making.

 

Perhaps, for some, he is stating the obvious but his work introduces a major conceptual twist based on an exquisite articulation of holarchy that has not yet been brought into the current debate regarding the state of the planet. 

 

Although we are undoubtedly worse off when it comes to the foundational value of biodiversity or ecosystem health, we are arguably a significantly more interconnected and complex global society than we were just twenty seven years ago when the term sustainable development was first coined by the Bruntland Commission.  Depth and span are related, but not on the same axis. And this has important ramifications for today’s moral decisions.

 

The definition of sustainable development, for example, posits “a desirable future state for human societies in which living conditions and resource-use meet human needs without undermining the sustainability of natural systems and the environment, so that future generations may also have their needs met.” That speaks only of span and not of depth. What depth of consciousness needs to be protected and promoted and included in this conception of sustainable development to provide humanity with the interior scaffolding to carry out such a vision?

 

The BMI is something that is intuited. But, how to implement this basic moral intuition is not given with that pure intuition. How to grapple with these moral dilemmas and implement decisions become part of the intersubjective and cultural and social project that all of us must discuss and decide. Or, as Wilber puts it:

 

“The intuition is given; the unpacking is our moral dilemma, always.”

 

Unpacking the BMI is the challenge of this century. How do we focus our efforts? Do we spend our time tackling a globally pressing issue like the radioactive water leaking from Fukushima, which is affecting entire marine ecosystems and impacting our planet for tens of thousands of years or do we work with a single child who may grow up and, given the opportunity, evolve in complexity to solve these kinds of foundational problems. Where in the map of span versus depth do we reside? Are there tipping points or fulcrums of change, leadership opportunities, or historical vantage points we can see in this map or do we play this particular game of life by ear; working one moment on larger scale issues, the next moment on the intensely personal? How do you decide? Wilber argues that this decision is entirely personal and it depends on where your talents and passions lie.  Do you know where your talents and passions lie?

 

This simple statement—‘protect and promote the greatest depth for the greatest span’—changes the entire sustainable development game. No longer is our collective challenge just about survival of numbers, or ensuring the broadest spectrum of species gets a chance to live. It is also about ensuring that each conscious being, from an ant to an artist, gets a chance to achieve her fullest potential. Suddenly we have a framework to understand the matrix of Millennium Development Goals and the world consensus on Agenda 21 while at the same time understanding why spiritual development, academic achievement or pushing our human understanding of music, poetry or art is equally valid and worthy.  The human rights charter comes into perspective as a statement not just about our equal right to live but also our equal opportunity to achieve our greatest depth of consciousness possible. Definitions of poverty change from poverty of material goods to include poverty of depth, or that is, a poverty of complexity of mind and extension of care.

Exploring the BMI and its manifestation in our global world is also about reaching into our interiors and exploring our individual selves to understand exactly who we are in a developing context. We change, we evolve, and we often cannot see ourselves clearly.  Where is our boundary of self and with whom do we identify?  Are we egocentrically focused or do we identify with the group or broader horizons?   There are few techniques more effective than the practice of Big Mind when it comes to exploring our interior landscapes. Each of us has a plethora of personalities, which we draw upon as our context changes. Yet some aspects of our selves seem constant, some seem to change, and some seem hidden or disowned. In the practice of Big Mind participants give voice to some of these interior identities through a process of group facilitation.  Voices like the victim, the saviour, the perpetrator, or the voice of care are all fascinating explorations of our psyche and identity boundaries in a social change context. The magic of Big Mind arises when we collectively explore interior voices to discover boundaries, uncover motivations and understand who we really are right now.

 

On the weekend of May 9-11, 2014 a group of global practitioners will gather near Vancouver, Canada to work with Zen Master and Big Mind facilitator Genpo Roshi as well as hear from philosopher Ken Wilber on this very topic.  This intimate retreat is being offered by the global development think-tank Integral Without Borders (IWB), closely associated with the Integral Institute, which has been leading global workshops, gatherings and peer learning events since 2006. The three-day session will commence on Friday afternoon May 9, 2014 with an introduction to the key concepts of the BMI to be followed by an intense evening journey into Big Mind exploring some of the primary aspects of self involved in social change. Saturday will include group activities, a follow up session on Big Mind and an evening social and guided exercise. Sunday morning will be a chance to integrate what has been learned, network and understand how to apply the BMI.

 

This event is being preceded by an introductory teleconference workshop  which is optional and free to registered participants. The retreat itself is open to public participation and discounted for Integral Without Borders, Big Mind or Integral Institute members. For those new to Integral Without Borders, Integral Theory or Big Mind there are suggested readings and videos that can be accessed prior to the event.

 

Is this event for you? IWB events are non-denominational, pluralist, apolitical opportunities for peer learning that explore critical emerging issues relevant to our global challenges.  People who attend tend to be open minded, willing to learn in a peer environment and keen to explore emerging ways of thinking using an integral framework as a foundation. Many people come to these events who have read Wilber’s work and are finding a like minded community of practitioners to further explore his philosophy. If you are familiar or interested in integral theory and the way in which it can be applied in the world of social change these are rare opportunities to be in a room full of energetic, intelligent and friendly people who will be happy to meet you.  This event will also be an opportunity for those interested in Big Mind and its application to social change to explore this nexus.

 

We encourage you to attend, particularly if you feel like you have both something to learn and something to offer. We call these events retreats because we do less teaching and more reflection, peer learning and group explorations of new ideas and methods. The impact tends to be inspiring.

 

How much will it cost?  We try to break even on IWB events or at least keep the costs as accessible as possible. Discounts are available for IWB members, Integral Institute Members and members of Big Mind. If you can afford the full tuition we encourage you to pay it (or more) and if you cannot, we encourage you to contact us so we can find a way for you to attend.

 

Preparatory Teleconference on the BMI – March 2014  $10 see the IWB website

Registration for Basic Moral Intuition weekend retreat with Genpo Roshi (Fri-Sun)

(includes lunches on Saturday and Sunday, and dinner on Friday and Saturday nights)


Registration Fee

Retreat times:

Friday May 9th, 1pm-9pm

Saturday May 10th, 9am-9pm (with a dinner break)

Sunday May 11th, 9am-4pm

 

Retreat location: The retreat location is in Gibsons, B.C., at Chaster House, a venue located on the ocean waterfront with lovely beach and hiking in the area.

 

To get to Gibsons:

Public transit is easily accomplished from the Vancouver International Airport (YVR) via the Skytrain to downtown Vancouver (20 minutes) and then the 257 Express Bus to Horseshoe Bay (45 minutes). (Approximate fare is $10 as it varies according to time window, Vancouver Public Transit website for planning your transportation is here: http://tripplanning.translink.ca/). Depending on participants there may be some carpooling or ridesharing from YVR available. A short ferry ride from Horseshoe Bay in Vancouver to Gibsons takes 40min (return fare for an adult is $14.55). Pickup to and from the ferry terminal can be arranged in Gibsons. The ferry takes 40 minutes so the latest ferry you should plan to catch on Friday is currently listed as an 11:30 am ferry (schedules seasonally change so please check prior to travel). 

 

Accommodation and travel: You are responsible for your own accommodation and travel expenses.  Most of the local B&B’s will provide breakfast. Local Bed and Breakfast facilities can be found here:

Very comfortable accommodation is available directly across the street from the retreat location at the popular Bonniebrook Lodge. We will be reserving some shared spaces here so please contact us if you would like to stay there or share a room.

Book early if you want to stay at the Bonniebrook Lodge which is the most convenient place to stay.

Local billeting will be made available on a first come first serve basis and free camping is within two blocks of the retreat location in a pocket of local rainforest.  Bring your own camping gear or communicate with us prior to the event.

 

Meals:

You are only responsibility for your breakfasts on Sat and Sun for the duration of the retreat. Please make your own arrangements for these two breakfast meals. We will provide lunches on Fri, Sat and Sunday, as well as dinner on Fri and Saturday, and refreshments during the day. All meals provided will be vegetarian in order to keep our lives simple. Please advise if you have specific health requirements and we will try to accommodate you.

 

Visas:

Canadian visa requirements vary by country. Please check the internet to see if you require one and if you require an entrance visa letter of invitation contact us with the details well in advance of the retreat. Visa applications for Canada can be very slow so do not delay in this regard.

 

Registration Information:

 

Please send registration information to mike@onesky.ca  via e-mail as soon as you can. Download the registration form document here. Don’t hesitate to let us know a little bit about yourself or the organization you are affiliated with. Participation will be allocated on a first come first serve basis with priority given to the first 30 participants who can pay the full tuition and a limited number of six sponsorships given out after this threshold has been achieved. The maximum participation will be 60 participants.  It really helps us to plan if you apply early!

 

Cutoff for the minimum number of paying participants will be 18 days prior to the event in which case we will individually inform you that we have cancelled the retreat.  Registration is considered complete once you have sent us the information and paid in full. A full refund is available up to two weeks in advance if we are given written notice. A partial refund (50%) is available until seven days prior and after that we don’t give refunds.

Last October, Gail Hochachka was invited to present on an Integral Approach to Climate Resilience at the Environmental Institute of Australia and New Zealand's annual conference in Melbourne. Paul Barnard, CEO of Integral Institute Australia, was the mastermind behind the conference program design. In a room of about 200 environmental scientists, we were intrigued to see that the domain of psychology--of motivational drivers, of values and consciousness--is increasingly making it into the climate change resilience and adaptation conversation. Yet, how do integrate this domain with both sophistication and ethics is really the question.

At this conference in Melbourne, this question of integration was front and central in our conversations, into which Hochachka added some of our ideas on how to attempt this. She shared a project in El Salvador on integrating consciousness and culture into the climate change adaptation process through using photo voice, so that local people inquire into their own meaning-making on what climate change is, how it affects them, and how they are already adapting and could continue to adapt further. The idea here is that if people problematize the issue of climate change and source insights for adaptation from their own first-person perspective, then they are naturally drawing on their own worldview, letting the team align more adeptly with those local worldviews. Such that any subsequent adaptation interventions are better anchored in the relevant meaning-making frames for the local communities.

The keynote was well-received, not only because day one really set a tone that made it easy for her to present these ideas, but also perhaps because it wasn't just a statement of "we need to include psychology" but it also gave an applied example for how we could do this in the field, in communities, in real-time.

This project was carried out in partnership by Drishti-Centre for Integral Action and Centro Bartolomé de las Casas - San Salvador, funded by Canada's IDRC. Gratitude to all involved in doing and sharing this work: Larry José, Roberto Caceres, Monica Flores, and others on the Centro Bartotome team, Helia and Gloria and all the project participants in Arcatao and Los Pozos, and other advisors such as Sandra Thomson, Robin Hood, and Karen O'Brien.

Deepening our practice of the Basic Moral Intuition

Our fourth Integral Without Borders Community Call will be on Jan 11th, 2014. As you may know, our intention with these IWB sangha calls is to co-create the kind of 'integral community' we want, one that is deep and wise in its content, supportive in its interpersonal connections, and world-centric (even kosmo-centric!) in it's moral embrace. Each call will focus on an aspect of integral practice in development with certain practitioners leading on these topics and with participants contributing examples from their integral projects.

Saturday, Jan 11th, 9-10:30am Pacific Time. (Find your time zone here).

Register: If you intend to attend, please be sure to drop us an email, so that we know you're intending to be on the call and also so that we can send you the audio clip afterwards.

How: The conference call line is a North American number, but it can be accessed by calling the number via skype.
Conference Dial-in Number: (605) 475-4810
Participant Access Code: 988715#

Price: For now, while we fine-tune these sangha calls, they will be by donation. Go here for donations and to read more about the call.

Topic: The call will be on the Basic Moral Intuition, as described by Ken Wilber, as a way to deepen our morality and discern our moves in development more wisely. Read below for more context about this topic.


The Basic Moral Intuition in the Context of Social Change

 
By Michael Simpson, Executive Director of One Sky and Co-Director of IWB

“The intuition is given; the unpacking is our moral dilemma, always.” Ken Wilber
 
Are you inspired to change the world and to reach your own potential? To leave this planet a better place for future generations? Ever wondered where to focus your efforts? There is no shortage of good causes and worthy deeds. How do we determine our priorities?  Is guiding the very first steps of a faltering toddler as worthy as solving a global crisis or tackling climate change? Maybe addressing your own needs is as important as those of others? Should we focus our efforts on individuals or the greater whole? You have limited time and resources. You cannot commit to everything so how do you choose?
 
It is 2014. The concept that we will save all species from extinction, alleviate poverty or achieve gender equality by next year through reaching the 2015 Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), or even succeed in achieving the most minimal of climate change targets has become yesterday’s dream. So, how does this situate us as global social change agents today? The definitions of sustainable development have always focused on “meeting our needs without compromising those of future generations,” yet the moment where that might have been achievable passed many years ago.
 
As an example, let’s review some recent species extinctions. As of 2013, the Formosan Clouded Leopard is now officially extinct and the last Black Rhino died in 2012.  The last of the Japanese River Otters died in 2011 and the last remaining Pinta Island Tortoise, affectionately called Lonesome George, expired on June 12, 2012. These are just a few examples of the estimated thousands of species that scientists estimate we are losing every year. Some put the figure as high as 50,000. Historically this has been a huge loss of biodiversity on our planet and we face an increasingly serious future.  Some argue our species is perilously close to instigating systemic collapse. Whether that’s true or not, we are definitely steadily losing ground when it comes to maintaining species and ecosystems for future generations.
 
While our species is struggling on this front, we have managed to achieve remarkable, unprecedented gains in others. We are interconnected like never before. We can share information at an exponential rate and technological achievements like the Internet have literally changed our world. And, recalling the Arab Spring, using these new forms of communications and other social networking possibilities enable people to participate in changing the world in ways they never had before. Our collective knowledge is doubling every five years, building up an immense resource of information and wisdom that is available to anyone anywhere, by a few clicks on a track pad.  Our world seems to be able to handle increasing levels of complexity and the human mind has access to achieving higher and higher levels of potential like no other time in history. We have overarching frameworks such as the International Human Rights Charter to aspire to. Most nations do in fact agree with the MDGs; whether or not those have been achieved, it is an achievement in and of itself that most nations agree with such a worldcentric set of goals. Certain Lower Right systems, such as fiber optics and computer networks, can literally move ideas (Upper Left and Lower Left quadrants) regarding, for example, spiritual and moral development around the planet at the speed of light.  We are living in remarkably complex times!
 
The Basic Moral Intuition (BMI), a concept outlined by Ken Wilber in his groundbreaking work on integral theory, helps us orient ourselves in such a complex world.  Wilber (and before him Koestler’s) notion of holarchy explains the concept of interconnected whole-parts, where each part is autonomously and yet simultaneously part of a larger whole. These holarchies are everywhere. Atom, molecule, cell, and organ. Seed, seedling, sapling, and oak tree. In a pyramidal way, the earlier holons, such as atoms and seeds, are always in greater number, or in greater span. Whereas the later holons, such as organs and oak trees, are usually in smaller number, and yet they have more depth, meaning that there are more levels of complexity present in their make-up. For an oak tree to exist, it has to have at least these three levels of the holarchy present: seed, seedling and sapling, thus it has greater depth than just a seed for example. The atom on the other hand has more foundation because of its span. Millions of atoms are needed to create a seed and if you take away this earlier more foundational level of the holarchy the seed does not exist and neither does the oak tree.
 
The BMI suggests that we intuit the need to protect and promote the greatest depth for the greatest span. We intuit it’s preferable to eat a carrot than to eat a primate. Or, another example as Wilber describes: “What’s worth more, one ape or a thousand frogs? Perhaps it is an ape…. On intrinsic value alone, we would choose the ape. But, if we discover that the frogs are part of a fragile ecosystem and their death would disrupt the entire system [since they have more fundamental value than the ape], then we would choose to save the frogs, since that would preserve the greatest depth for the greatest span, including probably the lives of other apes.” We are constantly and intuitively working out such moral decisions as we act in the world.
 
The BMI explores this relationship between depth of complexity and span of numbers—or simply, depth and span—and brings a whole new way of understanding the moral decisions that must be tackled regarding our planet’s future.
 
Wilber’s point is that while we need the earlier holons for their fundamental value, we cannot only protect those earlier holons at the expense of the later, more complex holons. So, the physiosphere is the foundation upon which the biosphere (the sphere of life) and the noosphere (the sphere of mind) function, we cannot only orient toward protecting the physiosphere and not also attend to the greater depth present in the biosphere and the noosphere.
 
Simply put, social change can’t only be about the numbers of trees standing. It has to also be about the poet or songwriter or an obscure-yet-transformational-philosophy-book-on-a-dusty-shelf-somewhere, matter. These matter, because they hold greater depth and, thus, may have potential to protect greater span. They have to be factored into our intuitive moves in the world today.
 
The key to understanding Wilber’s concept of the BMI is that without a physiosphere and without a biosphere, humans have no ability to exist or move toward complexity. Without chemicals you have no life, and without life you have no poetry. Poetry, he argues, has more complexity than a rock or a stone, and should have an important place in our moral decision-making.
 
Perhaps, for some, he is stating the obvious but his work introduces a major conceptual twist based on an exquisite articulation of holarchy that has not yet been brought into the current debate regarding the state of the planet. 
 
Although we are undoubtedly worse off when it comes to the foundational value of biodiversity or ecosystem health, we are arguably a significantly more interconnected and complex global society than we were just twenty seven years ago when the term sustainable development was first coined by the Bruntland Commission.  Depth and span are related, but not on the same axis. And this has important ramifications for today’s moral decisions.
 
The definition of sustainable development, for example, posits “a desirable future state for human societies in which living conditions and resource-use meet human needs without undermining the sustainability of natural systems and the environment, so that future generations may also have their needs met.” That speaks only of span and not of depth. What depth of consciousness needs to be protected and promoted and included in this conception of sustainable development to provide humanity with the interior scaffolding to carry out such a vision?
 
The BMI is something that is intuited. But, how to implement this basic moral intuition is not given with that pure intuition. How to grapple with these moral dilemmas and implement decisions become part of the intersubjective and cultural and social project that all of us must discuss and decide. Or, as Wilber puts it:
 
“The intuition is given; the unpacking is our moral dilemma, always.” 
 
Unpacking the BMI is our focus for this call. How do we focus our efforts? Do we spend our time tackling a globally pressing issue like the radioactive water leaking from Fukushima, which is affecting entire marine ecosystems and impacting our planet for tens of thousands of years or do we work with a single child who may grow up and, given the opportunity, evolve in complexity to solve these kinds of foundational problems. Where in the map of span versus depth do we reside? Are there tipping points or fulcrums of change, leadership opportunities, or historical vantage points we can see in this map or do we play this particular game of life by ear; working one moment on larger scale issues, the next moment on the intensely personal? How do you decide? Wilber argues that this decision is entirely personal and it depends on where your talents and passions lie.  Do you know where your talents and passions lie?
 
This simple statement—‘protect and promote the greatest depth for the greatest span’—changes the entire sustainable development game. No longer is our collective challenge just about survival of numbers, or ensuring the broadest spectrum of species gets a chance to live. It is also about ensuring that each conscious being, from an ant to an artist, gets a chance to achieve her fullest potential. Suddenly we have a framework to understand the matrix of Millennium Development Goals and the world consensus on Agenda 21 while at the same time understanding why spiritual development, academic achievement or pushing our human understanding of music, poetry or art is equally valid and worthy.  The human rights charter comes into perspective as a statement not just about our equal right to live but also our equal opportunity to achieve our greatest depth of consciousness possible. Definitions of poverty change from poverty of material goods to include poverty of depth, or that is, a poverty of complexity of mind and extension of care.

Join in this discussion on the BMI in development and social change work, bringing your own moral dilemmas to the conversation, helping us all deepen our practice, and laying some emergent ground for enacting this intuition in the future.

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